(* Use of the word "Viking" in this article refers to the Scandinavian or Norse peoples of the Viking Age spanning the late 8th to 11th centuries.)
The Old Norse term for sword is sverð (sverth). Here, I will use this term to refer only to the typical two-edged sword, wielded in one hand. The etymology is via Proto Germanic *swerdan from *swertha-, lit. "the cutting weapon," from the Proto-Indo-European root *swer- "to cut." There also exists the term hjörr denoting a sword. (Cognate with Old English heoru)
Viking terms for the twist-welded patterns in a sword-blade include mál (patterned or marked). From this term come mál-fár (inlaid with characters), mála-járn (inlaid iron weapon), mála-spjot and mála-sax (pattern-welded spear and pattern-welded sax).
Miðfáinn (ornamented in the centre) refers to the pattern showing in the centre of the blade and fiskhryggr (fish-back) most likely refers to the classic ‘herringbone’ pattern.
“Sigrúnar skaltu kunna, ef þú vilt sigr hafa, ok rísta á hjalti hjörs, sumar á véttrimum, sumar á valböstum, ok nefna tysvar Tý.”
There are several words listed in dictionaries as meaning scabbard.
For simplicity, perhaps the term sverð-skálpr is sufficient.